Monday, 22 June 2009
THE POST AVANT-GARDE:
umm, what is this?
Yes, that’s an understandable reaction to the phrase. The quick response is that the post-avant refers to poetry (and other arts) that are working past the realisation that what were deliberately transgressive “avant-garde” activities are now totally accepted and encouraged by critical, academic and funding institutions. (Visualise Damien Hirst and his income; any art college degree show; etc). So any art which wants to still, ah blest impulses! do something actually new, and to challenge and redefine the nature of art (or poetry or whatever) has to begin to play some pretty subtle cute games that go beyond — but can make use of all of — previous avant-garde practices.
In terms of poetry, by my reckoning the term post-avant, if it’s to be useful, explores the authorship, coherence, performance of the text (or indeed what text?), and happily uses (look, they’re not shocking, they’re our inheritance now) any of the ways poetry has innovated in the last century (or past five hundred years). So, yes, it’s a continuance of that avant-garde or modernist impulse, but one that is aware there isn’t going to be a revolutionary artistic utopia nor a wonderful movement to always better and more modern stuff — there’s only coping with the shit we’re in, the complicated inescapable language shit we’re totally in. Disabused, but not disabled, and abusive yet.
The term was first used by the German cultural critic Peter Bürger, who in his little book, Theory of the Avant-Garde tried to present a statement about the nature and status of avant-garde art at the beginning of the 1970s. His emphasis was on art rather than literature. He was trying to update the great German sociologists of culture of the first half of the Twentieth Century Theodor Adorno and, especially, Walter Benjamin. Benjamin's The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction is in many ways the model for Bürger's book (and essential reading for anyone interested in Modernist art).
Bürger sees the great avant-garde movements of the first half (essentially the first quarter) of the Twentieth Century, "the historic avant-garde", as having ended, and ended in failure, in that essential to their project was the transformation not so much of art styles, but of the whole of life. The repetition of their gestures and devices by contemporary artists he labels "neo-avant-garde" or "post avant-garde". He is pretty cold-blooded about this:
To formulate more pointedly: the neo-avant-garde institutionalizes the avant-garde as art, and thus negates genuinely avant-gardiste intentions. This is true independently of the consciousness artists may have of their activity, a consciousness that may perfectly well be avant-gardiste. It is the status of their products, not the consciousness artists have of their activity, that defines the social effect of works. Neo-avant-gardiste art is autonomous art in the full sense of the term, which means that it negates the avant-gardiste intention of returning art to the praxis of life. And the efforts to sublate art become artistic manifestations that, despite their producers' intentions, take on the character of works of art.
This is rigorous stuff! What he means is that by repeating the gestures of the original avant-garde, the neo- or post avant-garde are cutting these away from any role as demolishing the illusion or chains of art, and instead turning them into just more tricks in the artist's repertoire. Even if they think they are genuinely questioning the nature of art, they aren't: art exists as a social institution which will embrace the work they produce. Think Banksy in Bristol Art Gallery. Think Tracy Emin at the RA. Think Damien Hirst's multi-millionaire status. These people are the art establishment: they cannot make genuinely radical gestures, merely profitable or careerist ones. The art is just about art, just part of this complex social institution, which will include at this point all possible styles and techniques. "The total availability of material and forms characteristic of the post avant-gardiste art of bourgeois society" is the phrase Bürger uses to point this out, and with this his art critique matches the theoretical position of post-modernism: everything has "always already" been done, so the cultural state we are in is one that includes all possible styles.
And this is just inescapably so of contemporary art. Any art not recognising this is basing itself on delusion.
And poetry? Well, the often academically and poetry-as-a-career successful Language Poets have become essentially establishment figures in USA, tenured and feted, almost comparable to the various BritArt figures1. But in Britain — hardly so on any similar scale. Indeed I did like to feel that by some miracle British Innovative Poetry2 had preserved some "avant-gardiste" identity through its desperately marginal situation in the 1980s and early 90s.
I'm no longer so sure. There has been an increasing shift since 2000 of British Innovative Poetry's nature as a social institution. It had been a poetry produced by some people who worked in higher education, many who had a degree or whatever; and many without university education. But I find that more and more the bases for British Innovative Poetry have come to be universities and higher education colleges, and that the poetry itself is now fully integrated into the academic curriculum, whether as traditional literary studies or as creative writing. The forthcoming Journal of British and Irish Innovative Poetry signals this process with absolute clarity. Since the majority of those involved in this academic journal (taking editorial team and editorial board) are poets, indeed excellent poets, there is an elision between the writing of British Innovative Poetry and its study in higher education. Marginal it isn't any longer, but a component at last of a fully fledged element of the Ideological State Apparatus3. Some success.
So, not as glamorous as BritArt. But secure within an institutional base at last! Therefore, no longer in any conceivable way. "avant-gardiste".
OK, that's the general theoretical basis, using Bürger's phrase. British Innovative Poetry is now a post-avant movement.
End of story? Nahh, nothing's that clear cut, of course.
The term post-avant is used by a number of poets and critics (mainly US-based) to label trends in (mainly US-based) contemporary poetry. Thus one can talk of post-avant poets, poetry and poetics. On one level one is talking, I'm talking, about writers conscious of their position as necessarily "post avant-gardiste", and with this consciousness playing through their writing. Those that aren't are ignorant, living delusory existences as would-be avant-gardists, traditionalists, whatthefuckists.
Tighter than that there have been attempts to use post-avant as a label for a school. The locus classicus here (to offset my swearing with some Latin) is the American poet and critic Reginald Shepherd's 2008 blogpost
"Defining 'Post-Avant-Garde' Poetry" (enlarging on an earlier post by him, "Who You Callin' ‘Post-Avant'?" on the Harriet blog of the (American) Poetry Foundation.
Three quick things to note here, by the way. The term had been in use earlier, though not necessarily well conceived (Shepherd indeed refers to satirical uses of the term). The term existed and was used online heavily, and is linked with and used by online communities of poets extensively. (I am not going to chase earliest usages — let some poor drudge get a research grant for this.) It has now been used in print (academic) publications, but it is interesting and symptomatic that its use came in via online communities and networks (and see comments on Ron Silliman below). And lastly, the uncertainty and clumsiness over spellings and hyphenations. "Post-avant" is widely used as a solution, and I shall normally do so (unless quoting).
Here's a big chunk (my ellipses and two brief comments) of the crucial bit of Shepherd's definition:
The phrase "post-avant poetry," which was either coined seriously by Ron Silliman or parodically by Joan Houlihan, is bandied about quite a bit in the online poetry world. (I've never seen the phrase in print, an indication of how separate the two realms often are, though many people participate in both.) It's used with the assumption that "we all know what that is," but the term is rarely defined. . . . I hope that this too-broad discussion is not taken as a substitute for discussing actual poets and actual poems.
"Post-avant" (as in, "post-avant-garde"—insider groups love shorthand) poets can be described as writers who, at their best, have imbibed the lessons of the modernists and their successors in what might be called the experimental or avant-garde stream of American poets, including the Objectivists (especially Oppen and Zukofsky), what have been called the New American Poetries, particularly the Projectivist/Black Mountain School and the New York School(s), from Jack Spicer and Robert Duncan to John Ashbery and Frank O'Hara, and the Language poets (including such poets and polemicists as Charles Bernstein and Ron Silliman), without feeling the need (as so many other poetic formations have) to pledge allegiance to a particular group identity (the poetry world is full of fence-building and turf wars) or a particular mode of proceeding artistically. As poet Elizabeth Willis writes in her artist's statement in my anthology Lyric Postmodernisms, "part of what's so interesting about the current moment is its refusal of an overtly oedipal relation to literary traditions on either the right or the left, and a willingness to construct and invent not only new kinds of poetry but new ways of reading."
These poets don't form a movement, let alone a school, but something more like a set of tendencies. . . .
Poet and editor Rebecca Wolff writes of the work in her journal Fence, a home of the post-avant (along with such journals as Boston Review, Colorado Review, Denver Quarterly, New American Writing, Verse, and Volt, and such publishers as Ahsahta Press, the University of California Press, the late lamented University of Georgia Press Contemporary Poetry Series, and Wesleyan University Press) [note the academic bases established here — PP], such writing "intentionally blurs the distinction between 'difficulty' and 'accessibility,' preferring instead to address a continuum of utterance." Though many of these poets have projects and even systems (the book, as distinct from or even opposed to the individual poem, is important in much of their work), there aren't a lot of programs. There's much prose writing and thinking about poetry, and there are many, many blogs (this is a very wired "generation," and much sense of post-avant poetic community is produced online), but not many manifestoes. (Flarf, which poet Kasey Mohammad has defined as "intentionally bad poetry that involves Google search text results," a deliberate anti-poetry based on what Dan Hoy has called "poetics of awfulness as a style," is probably not "post-avant," but I don't understand it well enough to discuss it.) And no doubt I've missed a lot—there's a lot to miss. [difficult not to label flarf as typically post-avant — PP]).
That's quite broad, but useful. Notice reference to Ron Silliman, whose very full, informative, informed and widely read blog (started August 2002) has used the phrase extensively, and been responsible for much of the spread in its use. Silliman, one of the original group of Language Poets in the 1970s, uses the word favourably — this tends to be the poetry he values, as opposed to the wonderfully named "School of Quietude" (in British terms, mainstream poetry), characterised perceptively by him as poetry which imagines it is just poetry, belonging to no school. "Perhaps the most significant power move that the SoQ makes is to render itself the unmarked case in literature — it's poetry, or perhaps Poetry, while every other kind of writing is marked, named, contained within whatever framework its naming might imply." But:
I prefer post-avant precisely because the term acknowledges that the model of an avant-garde — a term that is impossible to shake entirely free of its militaristic etymological roots & that depends in any event upon a model of progress, i.e., teleological change always for the better — is inherently flawed. The term however acknowledges an historical debt to the concept & recognizes the concept as temporal in nature — the avant-garde that interests me is a tradition of consistently oppositional literary tendencies that can be traced back well into the first decades of the 19th century, at the very least. The term also has an advantage in being extremely broad — Tom Clark is post-avant & so am I — nobody gets to lay claim to it.
That's nice. I can use this. But it is also a tremendously broad term, which does seem to stand in for ‘stuff what I like' with Silliman. (I do simplify a more nuanced and complex analysis of the US poetry scene here. Read the blog!)
Two American poets and critics with I think more precise and usable senses of the word than Silliman are Kent Johnson and Adam Fieled. Johnson's contributions to an online discussion on a 2003 debate on Joan Houlihan's website Boston Comment on "Avant, Post-Avant, and Beyond" are extremely interesting and challenging. He started, responding to a general question on the status of avant-garde American poetry, by invoking Bürger, as I have, and then to discuss the implications of the institutionalisation of the Language Poets, who fit Bürger's criteria for a (failed) avant-garde to a tee, with their Marxising discourse boldly relating their Steinian4 poetic practice to the workers' struggle.
Language poetry, along with its various second-generation satellite formations, now stands as an experimentalist, but respectful and loyal, opposition within the Parliament of Academic poetry. The "post-avant" is the mode that ambitious young MFA'ers [postgraduate creative writing students — PP} study; it is the creative writing "style" scores of publishers are seeking; it is the aesthetic pedigree rising numbers of awards are prizing; it is the criticism and theory that prestigious university presses are publishing; it is the "subversive poetics" the current President of the Modern Language Association has made her reputation promoting.
Using Bürger's criteria, he indicates how the teeth have been drawn. He suggests that the distinction between Silliman's wide Post-avant and the School of Quietude (or whatever) is a false one: two sides of the same coin, nether really radically questioning the nature and role of poetry. What he calls for is a querying of authorship, which is where he ends up:
Following Pessoa's lead5, then, one possible challenge for future "experimental" writing will be to discard the ritualistic shackles of private authorial ownership and adopt imaginative vehicles sufficiently capacious to that force.
Of course, were this to happen to any significant degree, staunch resistance would no doubt come from all quarters of official verse culture—from those, that is, who have a stake in maintaining the status quo, "traditional" as well as "avant-garde."
Now that is an interesting call for a revaluation of fundamentals in poetry, a genuinely possible "post-avant-gardiste" position. Johnson's own work indeed involves this. His recent Shearsman book, Homage to the Last Avant-Garde, is one that has helped me reconsider my own poetic practice.
Adam Fieled, who I have published in Great Works, has in some ways a more traditional sense of the positive possibilities for a genuine post-avant poetry that escapes the dreadful triple tree of recuperation, normalisation and institutionalisation. His critical blog, Stoning the Devil, and his poetry blogzine, P.F.S. Post: Maximum Post-Avant, I both recommend passim. But I'll refer to a posting by him on the Australian ezine Cordite Poetry Review, "Rachel Blau DuPlessis and Abstract Morality In Post-Avant Poetry". He finds her work exemplary, both as post-avant practice, and, interestingly, as often diverging from the merely contemporary cool that is the routinised, toothless post-avant Johnson was savaging:
What DuPlessis does share with her post-avant cohorts is an overriding concern with poetic "process" and the scruples necessary to "use" it without abusing it. The essential moral issue . . . is whether poetry itself is a worthy endeavor in an oppressed, corrupted, oppressive and corruptive world. The "process" of creating poetry is there to be "scrutinized", "put on the spot". Poetry and poets themselves are given no kind of free ride; "true", penetrating gravitas must be earned through long and meticulous labor.
This all seems very concrete, and it is; abstraction enters the picture when words begin to appear on the page. There, "process" demands that language "have its own way" to a certain extent; nose-on-the-face inquiry would be too egocentric, the flip side of the "epiphanic" coin. Words go where they want to go; if they are not presented in a self-serving way, "there can still be a game" ([Roland} Barthes, [The Pleasure of the Text] 4)
Fieled is calling for a post-avant of rigorous total poetic selfless self-awareness, a delicate business (as his recourse to scare quotes shows!), but again, suggesting a route out of the "bad" (to borrow them) post-avant:
The answer seems to be that the poet's "I" must act as a verb, rather than a noun; the "I" must be a searching-for-a-self, rather than an assumed constant. The self is perceived as "dynamic" rather than "essential" ([Lyn] Hejinian [The Language of Inquiry], 203), a process rather than a stabilized, identifiable element. As such, post-avant poets look to poetry for a way to question the established values of socially constructed identities; poetry becomes a means whereby complacence is transmuted into a quest for moral, social, aesthetic, & personal justification.
. . .
The theory determining this method is that by taking out the "I", the post-avant poet can develop a more comprehensive view of the human condition as it exists in the world: in politics, art, social groups, countries & histories of art, politics, social groups and so on. In addition, by eschewing the epiphanic "I" (who usually has a sermon of some kind to deliver), the post-avant poet is free to cultivate a unique relationship to language, which often takes the form of a kind of interrogation.
The poet "looks into words", divines for the sub-texts that hover around linguistic structures and nuances. In this process, language itself, and the manner in which it determines our lives, becomes the focus of scrutiny. Part of the function of poetry is seen to be the enumeration of the "word-as-word", achieved by a scrupulous & detailed assault on linguistic convention.
I've taken out some attempt to draw in Romantic poetic discourse here. That's his take on the post-avant. But you can see how a poetry genuinely questioning identity may be posited.
This is a challenging operation. The Boston Dialogue piece quoted from above was set up by Houlihan after a posting of hers on her site, "Post-Post Dementia: How Contemporary American Poets Are Denaturing the Poem"6, sparked a lot of controversy. I can see why. She completely fails to at the fence with a number of what she labels mockingly "post-post" or "avant-avant-garde" poems. Embarrassingly, she falls into the trap of comparing poems to the utterances of people with strokes or dementia, that old Entarte Kunst play. "To question the established values of socially constructed identities", to repeat Fieled's phrase, at their most raw and basic, and inescapably human, is a tremendously worthwhile project. (The poem Houlihan most mocks is actually a little over-worked for my taste!)
So, I am, optimistic little soul that I may be, positing the possibility of something other than, more than, the institutionalised minor games that the post-avant can all too easily be seen as. Some kind of questioning stance towards the nature of poetry may be maintainable. There may be a "bad" post-avant, the inescapable fashionable mish-mash; but may be there can be a "good" post-avant, which attempts nevertheless7 the continuing radical questioning of poetry and language. It will need to be fully self-aware and to be totally questioning of its foundations. It will not provide comfort for anyone.
Is it doable this side of the Atlantic? Why not?
1 I'm assuming any British audience will not have escaped BritArt. But you may well have escaped Language Poetry. Quick summary of American poetry in the second half of the Twentieth Century follows. The 1950s and 60s (coming out of the 40s) were a hugely creative time in American poetry, with a vast welling up of a variety of poetic practices (like the more well-known art and music scenes in this time). The Confessional poets were very influential in mainstream British poetry. The Beats provided an exemplar for the British Poetry Revival of the 60s, together with input from more self-aware movements like the New York School, San Francisco Renaissance, Black Mountain Poets, even let's not forget, Deep Image. These latter movements, which have played a major role in helping form Innovative British Poetry, tended at the time to be more marginal to mainstream American literary culture than the Confessional poets. By the 70s, apart from the ever-reborn New York scene, they were running out of impetus (and many of the main players of that generation died relatively young). The Language Poets presented from the 70s and early 80s a widespread attempt at a culminatory avant-garde poetic, rigorously focusing on total involvement with language itself (ie not self, world, anything that language refers to), buttressed often with heavyweight theoretical, often Marxising, positions (especially in the onomastic periodical L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E). Many of the poets concerned have had success in establishing themselves in American literary and academic institutions. If you want to find out more — I've used here the names which Wikipedia uses for what are quite useful starting-point articles.
3 1. All ideological State apparatuses, whatever they are, contribute to the same result: the reproduction of the relations of production, i.e. of capitalist relations of exploitation.
2. Each of them contributes towards this single result in the way proper to it. The political apparatus by subjecting individuals to the political State ideology, the 'indirect' (parliamentary) or 'direct' (plebiscitary or fascist) 'democratic' ideology. The communications apparatus by cramming every 'citizen' with daily doses of nationalism, chauvinism, liberalism, moralism, etc, by means of the press, the radio and television. The same goes for the cultural apparatus (the role of sport in chauvinism is of the first importance), etc. The religious apparatus by recalling in sermons and the other great ceremonies of Birth, Marriage and Death, that man is only ashes, unless he loves his neighbour to the extent of turning the other cheek to whoever strikes first. The family apparatus . . . but there is no need to go on.
3. This concert is dominated by a single score, occasionally disturbed by contradictions (those of the remnants of former ruling classes, those of the proletarians and their organizations): the score of the Ideology of the current ruling class which integrates into its music the great themes of the Humanism of the Great Forefathers, who produced the Greek Miracle even before Christianity, and afterwards the Glory of Rome, the Eternal City, and the themes of Interest, particular and general, etc. nationalism, moralism and economism.
4. Nevertheless, in this concert, one ideological State apparatus certainly has the dominant role, although hardly anyone lends an ear to its music: it is so silent! This is the School.
It takes children from every class at infant-school age, and then for years, the years in which the child is most 'vulnerable', squeezed between the family State apparatus and the educational State apparatus, it drums into them, whether it uses new or old methods, a certain amount of 'know-how' wrapped in the ruling ideology (French, arithmetic, natural history, the sciences, literature) or simply the ruling ideology in its pure state (ethics, civic instruction, philosophy). Somewhere around the age of sixteen, a huge mass of children are ejected 'into production': these are the workers or small peasants. Another portion of scholastically adapted youth carries on: and, for better or worse, it goes somewhat further, until it falls by the wayside and fills the posts of small and middle technicians, white-collar workers, small and middle executives, petty bourgeois of all kinds. A last portion reaches the summit, either to fall into intellectual semi-employment, or to provide, as well as the 'intellectuals of the collective labourer', the agents of exploitation (capitalists, managers), the agents of repression (soldiers, policemen, politicians, administrators, etc.) and the professional ideologists (priests of all sorts, most of whom are convinced 'laymen').
Louis Althusser, "Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses (Notes towards an Investigation)", Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays
5 Fernando Pessoa, great Portuguese Modernist poet, famous for his use of poetic personas (heteronyms), with varying viewpoints and styles, for most of his major poetry.
6 I think this is the satirical use of post-avant referred to by Shepherd above.
7 If "always already" is taken as the mantra of postmodernism, I'd like "nevertheless" as the koan of the post-avant.
Tuesday, 16 June 2009
POETIC SPECIATION AND DIVERSIFICATION; Or, Why I am Alarmed at the Role the Academic Environment is Playing in Contemporary British Innovative Poetry
I like using an analogy made by Andrew Duncan to explain the disparate heterogeneity of contemporary British poetry: the SciFi topos of centuries-long space-missions, venturing out from the home planet to reach different stars, and establishing their own separate lineages and cultures. These increasingly diverge from each other and become unable to intercommunicate.
I’d prefer to tweak this into a biological analogy, which I find more precise and powerful. I was exploring this in more detail, when I encountered the American-published but largely British-content magazine Hot Gun!, which got me thinking about a specific aspect of the adaptations being made in contemporary poetry. I’ve ended up by not dealing that much with the magazine, though this piece of writing started as a response to it: Instead I have ended up with a rationale in the present environment for my own activities in attempting the dissemination and nurturing of poetry.
I have, though, maintained this overall extended metaphor, or act of intellectual modelling, of evolution and poetry, for two reasons. I think its biological basis enables it to cope extremely well both with process and change, and also with the fuzzy logic & probabilistic distribution of how actual systems operate. I do find myself considering poetry as system, both a pure artistic one, working out the inherent logic of material and form, and also, of course, a cultural or social system, interrelated to all other human activities.
So, to start with the basics. Think Darwin: life forms spreading across a world reach a fresh range of habitats (new continent, archipelago, city, whatever). They spread, move across it as they find their own good places. As to who ends up where: some occurrences will be largely inescapable, some will be totally contingent. The life forms adapt to their new ecological niches (indeed as they do so, define these niches), and therefore change, tending to communicate and breed only within themselves, in their new communities. Speciation occurs. Interestingly, different species may even end up with similar adaptations (and phenotypes) when they encounter similar environments, but will not interbreed despite such physical resemblances. Genotype, or lineage, is all.
So it is with poets. The social/economic/technological changes since the mid Twentieth Century have opened up fresh cultural habitats, even as others have degraded and become unviable (eg commercial poetry publishing and distribution). Some lineages occupy dominant roles in the ecosystem at different times. There are lots of accounts of all these. The poetry I am most concerned with, and that I imagine, gentle reader, you may be too, if you’ve encountered this piece, we shall call British Innovative Poetry. We can trace its gene pool back to some writers in the 50s and the 60s, largely inspired by their American and European peers, and importing their genes into British poetry, thus challenging the then-dominant lineages in British poetry. These themselves represented the deliberate stripping of those adaptations to the Modern World British poetry had been making through the first half of the Twentieth Century. One might have expected the non-regressive poetry to have readily occupied the prime ecological niches, but that would be to forget both that British literary culture in this period was a degrading environment in which survival by clinging to the last dwindling resources was the most common response, and the sheer defensive ferocity of the then-dominant species (which themselves were relatively newly-established, despite fabricated genealogies). Since that point British Innovative Poetry has largely occupied until recent years very minor and unstable ecological niches, lacking in major sources of nutrition, and cut off from access to wider environments, eg the back room in a pub, or essentially private networks of aficionados and cultists.
Meanwhile, the larger cultural environment changes continually: the dominant species, adapted perfectly to what is, always finds it difficult to cope with what this changes into. The Internet is an obvious case here: imagine a whole new continent in which a David Attenborough figure can enthuse over a rampant plethora of different organisms, bearing many differences from those on other continents (like those of paper). If I go into Waterstones to look for Modern British Poetry – it is an arid desert, occupied by a few very low-level and undifferentiated life-forms. But if I google “modern British poetry” or “contemporary British poetry”, I find a much more differentiated range of poetic life forms, and with access easily made to Innovative British Poetry. This suggests the Internet is matching our poetry’s needs better even than the mimeo-revolution small presses of the 1960s and 70s.
Now, another interesting phenomenon of our times I can fit into this metaphor, is the increasing role of an academic environment in supporting poetry of our genus (or family, phylum, whatever). This is linked with, I believe, a whole range of different factors that have come together:
- The rise of new focuses of literary studies: Creative Writing, Performance Writing, Poetics and Poetic Practice as academic disciplines are all excellent environments for poetry fascinated by linguistic innovation and experimentation and reared in close location to theory.
- British Innovative Poetry has developed since the late 1960s in tandem with trends towards theorising in literary studies (and across the whole gamut of humanistic studies indeed). The establishment of a theoretical basis is one of the conditions which encourages survival in the academic environment (like gills in the sea or legs on land – you can manage without, but it’s easier with). The undefined and unreflective nature of much mainstream poetry acts against it here.
- Cambridge. (Sorry!) Like some kind of master set of genes that just, well just does, give a sense of superior life efficiency or dominance, any lineage involving this place boosts its possessor’s chances. (That’s what gets paid for, after all.) As British society increases in its inequalities, the training ground of the social elite simply attunes its products best of all for current high level social/ecological niches.
- American connections and examples. I would say these give both access to major sources of nutrition, and other boosts to biological success. The rise of MFA programs and the earlier success of the Language poets in attaining academic positions represent earlier parallel evolutionary trends.
- Moreover, what may be overall most important for the ecology of poetry is that academic niches also give excellent reproductive benefits. This is basic. Fresh poets of our genus (or whatever etc) can be spawned wholesale, with careful control moreover in the academic process that their genotype does not suffer too many mutations (a major problem with poetic genetics).
This has all come together in recent years to encourage a major ecological breakthrough for British innovative poetry! The success of other poetry lineages in seizing the dominant ecological niches is potentially reversible. We can outbreed them with true offspring, and have a solid ecological basis at last. We are the future dominants! The coup by which the small shrewlike creatures typified by Kingsley Amis and Philip Larkin seized the lush pastures in the early 1950s can be reversed at last. Indeed critics are already fabricating a whole new fossil ancestry for us (typified by Joseph Macleod and Lynette Roberts). (Unlike biological organisms, there do seem to be survival benefits to poetic organisms in believing they are part of a long-standing and successful strain).
Am I serious? Hmm. Am I happy at this state of affairs? The poetic ecologist has no emotions, merely records what is there and how it all interrelates.
But the poet is a bit alarmed.
The reasons for my alarm, other than my general pessimism and paranoia coupled with a painfully acquired expectation of failure always, can be dealt with by referring to Hot Gun! It is a neat little mag, elegantly and engagingly produced, from New Haven, CT (ie Yale) with some fine poets, almost (all?) British. Unfortunately, I found myself very unmoved by it, once I’d got over my initial pleasure at the very cool appearance. This may well reflect problems with my responses, so I won’t go into detail with what stuck in my craw – and did so to my surprise and against my expectations. There are poets included, like Jow Lindsay and Andrea Brady, who usually bring me great joy. But, in this mag, I found a certain poetic monoculture that drained excitement from them. The similarities blurred the poems, the procedures used became obvious and expected. I was not challenged. Delight was lessened by monotony. “Is that all there is?”
Now, one of the quasi-academic essays, Emily Critchley on “Women in Language Poetry”, I found more useful and interesting. She presents a careful and accurate critique of much Language writing, and defends other writers who may be less publicised because of qualities like tentativeness and openness. These writers are female – the more successful ones male. Critchley links qualities as writers with gender, and indeed with gender politics:
the female Language poets pursued the heterogeneity, subtlety and openness that now characterizes third wave feminism and which I hope will come to be the more lasting legacy of this complex literary era. ‘The thing to demand was, and remains, heterogeneity,’ as Hejinian puts it, ‘– weird and wonderful and multiple ways of being women, and of being men, and of being human, and of being animal – or why not, riverbanks or saxophones or horticultural supply houses.’
Now this is the game I want to play, or the life I want to live, being invoked here. It is a good piece of writing, useful to me as a poet, recovering what may be valuable from the Language poets. In it, moreover, the academicisation inherent in their poetry is pinned onto the board for all to see:
The low frequency of theoretical work that initially accompanied the poetry of the female Language writers may have meant that they were at first taken less seriously by their male peers – an anxiety that several of the language poets seem to have grappled with throughout the 1980s and ‘90s, perhaps explaining their belated critical output.
To be taken seriously is to be a successful secretor of secondary discourse, rather than a good poet.
This is obviously a major problem for the poet in the academic environment: the primary purpose of poetry is less important than the poetically secondary purpose of producing academic material.
There is a complex relationship in all poetic movements (or genera), on the relationship between poems and discourse (whether explicit manifestos, essays or whatever). Poetics is not necessarily inherent in the poetry – it requires procedures for it to be made manifest and explicit. There can indeed be interesting mismatches between poetry and its attendant discourse. However, what the Language poets did was to up the stakes to the max in unreadability and academicisation (and I do hope you dislike this word). The advanced theoretics winning the male poets their academic status was mainly bullshit which obfuscated the actuality and origins of their writing, but bigged them up good to their lasting (so far) benefit. I think this is to do with their relationship to the academic environment they so successfully engaged with, only secondarily with gender. The gender differential may well relate to gender bias within the academic community at that time, rather than be absolute or essentialist.
So, I’m sure you can get my drift here. My assumption is the on-academic one that poetry has survived as a cultural activity through its relative ease of access, and its direct relationship with human needs involving the range of functions language plays in our lives. It is readily produced, readily consumed. It is at root unspecialised. There’s plainly a form of it, or range of forms of it, I feel, as I daresay you do, important and worthy of survival and further development. Its value is that it is also at root unspecialised, highly variable and adaptable. Even British Innovative Poetry must be approachable on terms that don’t necessitate academic training and in places that are separate from higher education.
It seems dangerous to me that the academic ecological niche is becoming so important. I have overheard people commenting that they needed to do an MA to become a writer. This fills me with despair.
This is despair not aimed at the individuals concerned, nor their current activities. The Editorial Team of the imminent Journal of British and Irish Innovative Poetry is a veritable dream team: Robert Sheppard and Scott Thurston (editors), with an editorial Board of Peter Barry, Caroline Bergvall, Charles Bernstein, Andrea Brady, Ian Davidson, Alex Davis, Allen Fisher, John Hall, Robert Hampson, Romana Huk, Elizabeth James, Tony Lopez, Anthony Mellors, Peter Middleton, Ian Patterson, Marjorie Perloff, William Rowe, Keith Tuma and Tim Woods (13 Professors, 7 Doctors in total – 4 of whom are American academics). I have published, or presented in performance, at various times ten of these people, and all others whose poetry I know I would dearly love to publish or present.
Interestingly there is a lack in the listing of names for this journal of several individuals I have published/presented involved with academic Creative Writing courses (BA and MA), eg Jeff Hilson, Tim Atkins, Lesley Mckenna, Keith Jebb, Simon Smith. All superb poets whose work I am proud to have published or presented. I keep publishing work by their students also – these courses appear to do what they do superbly well, and are plainly aiding a significant creative moment in British poetry. Believe you me, all those named here (and others who might be), this is not a personal concern, not a criticism of your academic or poetic activities: “Lord, I am not worthy” etc.
It is alarm at this change in the mechanisms by which British Innovative Poetry sustains itself as an institution. These changes, I suggest, will necessarily alter the nature of the poetry, and of the poetic community, and of entry to it. We are being set up for being a poet as being perceived as requiring somehow graduate entry, indeed possibly postgraduate entry. Now, I have been professionally employed in such professional education, having done some work at Harlow College on the BA in Journalism, and played a major role in setting up a Postgraduate Diploma in Magazine Journalism (the first with accreditation from both the NCTJ and PTC). There are debates within journalism over practical versus academic training, but plainly as a way of ensuring starting journalists acquire necessary skills and knowledge bases such courses play a major role, and the traditional days of local papers hiring bright lads straight from school do not match the nature of journalism as a contemporary profession. And even then, they were sent off on block release for training at colleges, like Barry MacSweeney at Harlow (just before my time).
But with regard to poetry, I don’t see academic courses, whether “practical” (ie creative) or theoretical (more traditional literary studies), as playing the role of the genuine training courses I have mentioned, nor needing to be for the continuing reproduction of poetry. It would be absurd. Poetry isn’t important because it is the subject of academic study. In no way does it depend on academic study. It is important because it is a fundamental human relationship with language (like music is with sound-production, art with mark making, dance with movement). Poetry as such is as unstoppable as sex. It will take place!
It’s how it’s done is always the issue. Specifically, it is the fate of the lineage of contemporary British Innovative Poetry that is uncertain. Having the academic environment as a main base seems to me to be a trap, for a large number of reasons:
- The poetry will be there at the mercy of the utterly reductive target-culture which dominates all aspects of British education, and distorts everything within education. Their values within our education system, that dominate and form it, are totally antithetical to anything related to innovative poetry. All those involved may well be at present fighting this off, I’m sure they are. It’s as futile as trying to fight a major climatic change.
- The poetry will be there at the mercy of a higher education system which is drastically underfunded, and about to face both pressures to charge students more, and major funding cuts (oh, and with an emphasis on employability and practical, ie money making, applications). Creative writing (or whatever) is undoubtedly cheaper than physics or engineering; but, well, if a cost-benefit analysis is applied by someone not involved, where are we?
- It will be subject to the vagaries of intellectual fashion and internal politics within universities.
- Discourse about poetry will be placed as central, rather than poetry itself, and necessarily and inescapably both discourse and poetry will be valued which require further academic processing above poetry (and discourse) which do not.
- Perceived barriers – which indeed are ultimately class barriers let us remember – will be placed in the way of would-be poets.
- The poetry will probably end up tending towards a very clever but empty reproduction of formulas and phrases – precisely what is meant by academicism in poetry.
These things cannot be avoided. They may well only be minor factors at present, and I repeat my admiration for the work that is done creatively within Higher Education. And though I may be more dubious about the value of some critical writing to anyone other than another labourer in the academic vineyard, I’ve put myself down for a subscription to JBIIP. But those above are real constraints which the academic environment will impose over time. This is an environment with huge risks, which could greatly change the nature of Innovative British Poetry.
To return to my governing extended metaphor: a successful adaptation by our genus to the academic habitat would be a disastrous specialisation, dooming us to restriction to this apparently favourable habitat, and dependent on it for our survival (when it is inherently unstable and potentially about to degrade). We need a wider range of environments to flourish in to prevent this, and to allow us to retain the full potential of a more generalised lifestyle. This is especially true, as up to now, we have survived in the interstices, on the margins etc. This teaches good survival tactics, enables very generalised and adaptable body forms and a range of life patterns. I mistrust the changes that may occur if British Innovative Poetry becomes an appendage of the Ideological State Apparatus, to use the good old Althusserian phrase, rather than with an essentially oppositional stance towards cultural dominants.
To counter this academicisation I urge therefore a greater looking out for audiences for our writing that are not dependent on the Higher Education environment (even if they benefit from its presence). The role of reading series which address a wider audience than those already signed and sealed into the confraternity/consorority of poets is important, that present our work in ways which can appeal to those not already accredited or inoculated (there’s another metaphor going on here). Openned and The Other Room, with all their attendant activities, are the leaders in this. Contemporary writing is presented as enjoyable and entertaining, with access by those not already involved encouraged and built into the projects. This is what I tried to achieve in Sundays at the Oto. There should be more of this, with an encouragement always for those even vaguely interested to grasp some basic rules of our game, and lay themselves open to the direct experiencing of the fascinating and pleasurable operations of language involved. (If you need a bleedin’ degree to understand it – fuck it!)
There are threats here also. There is a commercial world of performance poetry in which essentially the audience domesticates the poets, who must produce solely the products the audience feels they have bought (easy humour and emotion, a couple of rhymes, maybe even a bit of competitiveness). This is an intensely dreary monoculture. There needs to be a careful control of the symbiotic balance between audiences and poets to ensure variety and development within our genus. I would avoid the commercial operators here, unless we really want to end up as one-trick performing ponies, zombie poet-entertainers (metaphor mix again!).
Access to publications is another need to encourage a wider habitat for us. Bookshops, to carry on with forceful language, are fucked, unfortunately, though books may not be. (Despite my online presence, I’m dubious about ebooks and ereaders, as being less satisfactory experiences – though obviously this may be my own lack of adaptability.) We are coping with this. I think all major publishers of British Innovative Poetry now have websites where their books can be bought (and indeed many operate through Amazon). What might be useful would be a site acting as a virtual online retailer, with links to the publishers’ sites, but with the possibility of drawing together the whole range of what is available, so that an interested person, for example, could simply check what is in print by Peter Riley or Andreas Brady, and order it from the publisher just like that. This should be doable, I would have thought.
So, I am not suggesting a replacement of the academic environment, in which indeed so many thrive – I am demanding the diversification of the conditions under which British Innovative Poetry is encouraged, encountered and allowed to flourish. We maintain hold of what we have, as it were, and venture further abroad. We must be grey squirrels, adaptable, robust, unspecialised and rapidly reproducing; not red squirrels, stuck with requirements for very specific habitats, ending up, yet again, merely with relict populations, too small to be viable. Diversification, that’s what I’m after. It’s an evolutionary winner.
Labels: contemporary British poetry
Wednesday, 10 June 2009
More Pistol Tree Poems Now!
Monday, 8 June 2009
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